Dry-bulk:Our Perspective

As we know, the ocean-going vessels representtoday the most efficient, and often the only alternative for transporting bulk commodities. Therefore, the maritime trade has now become an essential link in global trade. In 2014, approximately 6 billion tons of Dry-bulk cargo was transported by sea, comprising more than one-third of all international seaborne trade. Dry-bulk cargo is shipped in large quantities and can be easily stowed in a single hold with little risk of cargo damage. Dry-bulk cargo is generally categorized as either major bulk or minor bulk. Major bulk cargo constitutes the vast majority of Dry-bulk cargo by weight, and includes, inter-alia, iron ore, coal and grain. Minor bulk cargo includes products such as agricultural products, mineral cargoes (including metal concentrates), cement, forest products and steel products and represents the balance of the Dry-bulk industry. In terms of seaborne trade volumes, the dominant influence is that of the major bulk trades, which include coal, iron ore and grains.

Chartering Services De Oceanos Shipbrokers Pvt. Ltd. provide :

Major Bulk

Steel-Related Commodities
Iron Ore
Iron ore is used as a raw material for production of steel along with limestone and coking coal. Steel is primarily consumed in bulk by construction, engineering, automotives and machine industries. In 2014, approximately 1.05 billion tons of iron ore worth US$ 118.8 billion was exported worldwide: with China importing over 700 MT alone; the European Union, Japan and South Korea are other major importers. The main producers and exporters of iron ore are Australia and Brazil.De Oceanos Shipbrokers have their strategic business facilitators present in every major shipping sectors and provide seamless chartering services from anywhere in the world.

Steam Coal
Steam coal is primarily used for power generation. Steep rise in oil and gas prices has given impetus to growth of coal fed power generation companies. This has resulted in spurt in steam coal trade. The most dramatic growth has occurred in China and Indonesia, both of which have increased their export capacity in the intra-Asian market. Furthermore, in the global market for steam coal, China is a major importer and Australia is the largest exporter. Asian coal is primarily traded in Capesize and Panamax tonnage. European countries tend to import steam coal from exporters in the Atlantic region using Panamax vessels. De Oceanos Shipbrokers have the necessary expertise to facilitate and co-ordinate chartering of steam coal at the most economical cost.

Met Coke
Coal is found in plenty and at current scenario the supply-reserves would last for over 200 years. Also, Coal is mined in more than 50 countries without any regionalinter-dependence. Coal is burnt under controlled condition to produce high BTU metallurgical coke (met-Coke)which is used to feed blast furnaces in steel production. An increase in seaborne transportation of met-coke has been primarily driven by an increase in steel production. The increase in import activity has occurred in a number of regions. Currently, Asia and Western Europe are major importers of met coke. Australia and Indonesia provide a significant amount of met coke to Asia, while South Africa and the United States are major sources for Western Europe. India is one of the prime importer of coal and met-coke.De Oceanos Shipbrokershave the necessary expertise to facilitate and co-ordinate the sale, purchase and chartering of met-coke at clients’ utmost satisfaction.

Pet-cokeis a carbonaceous solid delivered from oil refineries. Other coke has traditionally been delivered from coal.This coke can either be fuel grade (high in sulfur and metals) or anode grade (low in sulfur and metals). The raw coke directly out of the coker is often referred to as green coke. The further processing of green coke by calcination makes it more potent fuel. Fuel grade pet-coke is mainly used in Cement industry and is in great demand. The anodes are mainly used in the aluminium and steel industry and for making carbon anodes.Pet-coke Global market is today worth US$ 7 Billion. Buyers for power generation, cement and industrial uses in India and other Asian countries buy US and Venezuelan petroleum coke, bidding whenever prices for delivery to Asia are competitive. The first half of 2015 and the whole of 2014 realised record exports of Green petroleum coke from the USA. China has also emerged as new centre of Pet-coke production. India also produces substantial quantity of pet-coke. De Oceanos Shipbrokershave strategic marketing contacts in the US, India and other Europian and Asian countries and enough resources for facilitating pet-coke deals.

Steel Products
Major importers of steel products are China, the United States and South East Asia. Major exporters of steel products are Japan, Russia and Western Europe. Handymax and Handysize vessels are typically preferred for transporting steel products. For voyages that span the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, Handymax vessels are frequently used on shorter routes involving intra-Asian and intra-European trades.De Oceanos Shipbrokersprovide chartering of steel products in safer environment at competitive rates.

Grains include wheat, pulses, coarse grains (corn, barley, oats, rye and sorghum) and oil seeds extracted from different crops such as soybeans and cottonseeds. In general, wheat is used for human consumption, while coarse grains are used as feed for livestock. Oil seeds are used to manufacture vegetable oil for human consumption or for industrial use, while their protein-rich residue is used as a raw material in animal feed. Total grain production is dominated by the United States. Argentina is the second largest producer followed by Canada and Australia. In terms of imports, the Asia/Pacific region (excluding Japan) ranks first, followed by Latin America, Africa and the Middle East. The principal vessel classes used in the grain trade are Panamax and Handymax. India is a major importer of grain due to climatic variations. De Oceanos Shipbrokers are well acquainted with the local needs and have great business relations with the buyers and sellers of grain across the world. We provide necessary knowledge and facilitate chartering of grains at a very competitive rate.

Minor Bulks

Forest Products
Over the past decade, seaborne transportation of forest products has increased by approximately 30 million tons. South America has increased its export market share, with an emphasis on the export of wood pulp and lumber. The emphasis on wood pulp and lumber export can be tied directly not only to the increase in wood pulp and sawmill capacity, but also to plantations that have taken advantage of their large wood reserves, which coincided with higher growth of such raw materials. The largest importers of wood products are China, Japan, the United States and Western Europe. The positive trend in the transportation of wood products has benefited Handymax and Handysize vessels, which are the vessels typically employed to transport these products.

Other Minor Bulks
The balance of Dry-bulk trade is represented by agricultural cargoes, bauxite and alumina, fertilizers and cement. Minor bulks are typically transported by smaller vessels of less than 40,000 dwt.

Read More